This module provides access to the BSD socket interface.
Difference to CPython
For efficiency and consistency, socket objects in Pycopy implement a
(file-like) interface directly. In CPython, you need to convert a socket to
a file-like object using
makefile() method. This method is still supported
by Pycopy (but is a no-op), so where compatibility with CPython matters,
be sure to use it.
Socket address format(s)¶
The native socket address format of the
usocket module is an opaque data type
getaddrinfo function, which must be used to resolve textual address
(including numeric addresses):
sockaddr = usocket.getaddrinfo('google.com', 80)[-1] # You must use getaddrinfo() even for numeric addresses sockaddr = usocket.getaddrinfo('127.0.0.1', 80)[-1] # Now you can use that address sock.connect(addr)
getaddrinfo is the most efficient (both in terms of memory and processing
power) and portable way to work with addresses.
socket module (note the difference with native Pycopy
usocket module described here) provides CPython-compatible way to specify
addresses using tuples, as described below. Note that depending on a
socket module can be builtin or need to be
pycopy-lib (as in the case of
Pycopy Unix port),
and some ports still accept only numeric addresses in the tuple format,
and require to use
getaddrinfo function to resolve domain names.
- Always use
getaddrinfowhen writing portable applications.
- Tuple addresses described below can be used as a shortcut for quick hacks and interactive use, if your port supports them.
Tuple address format for
- IPv4: (ipv4_address, port), where ipv4_address is a string with
dot-notation numeric IPv4 address, e.g.
"188.8.131.52", and port is and integer port number in the range 1-65535. Note the domain names are not accepted as ipv4_address, they should be resolved first using
- IPv6: (ipv6_address, port, flowinfo, scopeid), where ipv6_address
is a string with colon-notation numeric IPv6 address, e.g.
"2001:db8::1", and port is an integer port number in the range 1-65535. flowinfo must be 0. scopeid is the interface scope identifier for link-local addresses. Note the domain names are not accepted as ipv6_address, they should be resolved first using
usocket.getaddrinfo(). Availability of IPv6 support depends on a
socket(af=AF_INET, type=SOCK_STREAM, proto=IPPROTO_TCP, /)¶
Create a new socket using the given address family, socket type and protocol number. Note that specifying proto in most cases is not required (and not recommended, as some Pycopy ports may omit
IPPROTO_*constants). Instead, type argument will select needed protocol automatically:
# Create STREAM TCP socket socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM) # Create DGRAM UDP socket socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM)
getaddrinfo(host, port, af=0, type=0, proto=0, flags=0, /)¶
Translate the host/port argument into a sequence of 5-tuples that contain all the necessary arguments for creating a socket connected to that service. Arguments af, type, and proto (which have the same meaning as for the
socket()function) can be used to filter which kind of addresses are returned. If a parameter is not specified or zero, all combinations of addresses can be returned (requiring filtering on the user side).
The resulting list of 5-tuples has the following structure:
(family, type, proto, canonname, sockaddr)
The following example shows how to connect to a given url:
s = usocket.socket() # This assumes that if "type" is not specified, an address for # SOCK_STREAM will be returned, which may be not true s.connect(usocket.getaddrinfo('google.com', 80)[-1])
Recommended use of filtering params:
s = usocket.socket() # Guaranteed to return an address which can be connect'ed to for # stream operation. s.connect(usocket.getaddrinfo('google.com', 80, 0, SOCK_STREAM)[-1])
Difference to CPython
CPython raises a
OSErrorsubclass) in case of error in this function. Pycopy doesn’t have
socket.gaierrorand raises OSError directly. Note that error numbers of
getaddrinfo()form a separate namespace and may not match error numbers from the
uerrnomodule. To distinguish
getaddrinfo()errors, they are represented by negative numbers, whereas standard system errors are positive numbers (error numbers are accessible using
e.argsproperty from an exception object). The use of negative values is a provisional detail which may change in the future.
Convert a binary network address bin_addr of the given address family af to a textual representation:
>>> usocket.inet_ntop(usocket.AF_INET, b"\x7f\0\0\1") '127.0.0.1'
Convert a textual network address txt_addr of the given address family af to a binary representation:
>>> usocket.inet_pton(usocket.AF_INET, "184.108.40.206") b'\x01\x02\x03\x04'
Address family types. Availability depends on a particular
IP protocol numbers. Availability depends on a particular
Pycopy port. Note that you don’t need to specify these in a call to
SOCK_STREAMsocket type automatically selects
IPPROTO_UDP. Thus, the only real use of these constants is as an argument to
Constants specific to WiPy:
Special protocol value to create SSL-compatible socket.
Mark the socket closed and release all resources. Once that happens, all future operations on the socket object will fail. The remote end will receive EOF indication if supported by protocol.
Sockets are automatically closed when they are garbage-collected, but it is recommended to
close()them explicitly as soon you finished working with them.
Bind the socket to address. The socket must not already be bound.
Enable a server to accept connections. If backlog is specified, it must be at least 0 (if it’s lower, it will be set to 0); and specifies the number of unaccepted connections that the system will allow before refusing new connections. If not specified, a default reasonable value is chosen.
Accept a connection. The socket must be bound to an address and listening for connections. The return value is a pair (conn, address) where conn is a new socket object usable to send and receive data on the connection, and address is the address bound to the socket on the other end of the connection.
Connect to a remote socket at address.
Send data to the socket. The socket must be connected to a remote socket. Returns number of bytes sent, which may be smaller than the length of data (“short write”).
Send all data to the socket. The socket must be connected to a remote socket. Unlike
send(), this method will try to send all of data, by sending data chunk by chunk consecutively.
The behavior of this method on non-blocking sockets is undefined. Due to this, on Pycopy, it’s recommended to use
write()method instead, which has the same “no short writes” policy for blocking sockets, and will return number of bytes sent on non-blocking sockets.
Receive data from the socket. The return value is a bytes object representing the data received. The maximum amount of data to be received at once is specified by bufsize.
Send data to the socket. The socket should not be connected to a remote socket, since the destination socket is specified by address.
Receive data from the socket. The return value is a pair (bytes, address) where bytes is a bytes object representing the data received and address is the address of the socket sending the data.
setsockopt(level, optname, value)¶
Set the value of the given socket option. The needed symbolic constants are defined in the socket module (SO_* etc.). The value can be an integer or a bytes-like object representing a buffer.
Note: Not every port supports this method, see below.
Set a timeout on blocking socket operations. The value argument can be a nonnegative floating point number expressing seconds, or None. If a non-zero value is given, subsequent socket operations will raise an
OSErrorexception if the timeout period value has elapsed before the operation has completed. If zero is given, the socket is put in non-blocking mode. If None is given, the socket is put in blocking mode.
Pycopy portsupports this method. A more portable and generic solution is to use
uselect.pollobject. This allows to wait on multiple objects at the same time (and not just on sockets, but on generic
streamobjects which support polling). Example:
# Instead of: s.settimeout(1.0) # time in seconds s.read(10) # may timeout # Use: poller = uselect.poll() poller.register(s, uselect.POLLIN) res = poller.poll(1000) # time in milliseconds if not res: # s is still not ready for input, i.e. operation timed out
Difference to CPython
CPython raises a
socket.timeoutexception in case of timeout, which is an
OSErrorsubclass. Pycopy raises an OSError directly instead. If you use
except OSError:to catch the exception, your code will work both in Pycopy and CPython.
Set blocking or non-blocking mode of the socket: if flag is false, the socket is set to non-blocking, else to blocking mode.
This method is a shorthand for certain
sock.setblocking(True)is equivalent to
sock.setblocking(False)is equivalent to
makefile(mode='rb', buffering=0, /)¶
Return a file object associated with the socket. The exact returned type depends on the arguments given to makefile(). The support is limited to binary modes only (‘rb’, ‘wb’, and ‘rwb’). CPython’s arguments: encoding, errors and newline are not supported.
Difference to CPython
As Pycopy doesn’t support buffered streams, values of buffering parameter is ignored and treated as if it was 0 (unbuffered).
Difference to CPython
Closing the file object returned by makefile() WILL close the original socket as well.
Read up to size bytes from the socket. Return a bytes object. If size is not given, it reads all data available from the socket until EOF; as such the method will not return until the socket is closed. This function tries to read as much data as requested (no “short reads”). This may be not possible with non-blocking socket though, and then less data will be returned.
Read bytes into the buf. If nbytes is specified then read at most that many bytes. Otherwise, read at most len(buf) bytes. Just as
read(), this method follows “no short reads” policy.
Return value: number of bytes read and stored into buf.
Read a line, ending in a newline character.
Return value: the line read.
Write the buffer of bytes to the socket. This function will try to write all data to a socket (no “short writes”). This may be not possible with a non-blocking socket though, and returned value will be less than the length of buf.
Return value: number of bytes written.
Pycopy does NOT have this exception.